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Juvenile males in the pool

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Gay xXx Pics Juvenile males in the pool.

McDonough; Predator preference for brightly colored males in the guppy: Although conspicuous visual sexual signals, such as bright colors, in males serve to attract females in numerous species, they may also attract the attention of potential predators and thus may be costly in terms of increasing individual risk of mortality to predation.

Most models of the evolution of extravagant male sexual traits and female preferences for them assume that the sexually preferred male trait is costly to produce and maintain. Juvenile males in the pool

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However, there is surprisingly little empirical evidence for direct fitness costs associated with sexually selected visual traits that enhance male mating success. In the present study, we report a direct fitness cost for sexually selected, bright body-color patterns in males in the form of an associated greater risk of mortality to predation. By using the guppy Poecilia reticulata and the blue acara cichlid fish Aequidens pulcher as a model prey—predator system, we demonstrate experimentally that individual cichlids preferentially and consistently approached, attacked, and captured the more brightly colored of two size-matched male guppies presented simultaneously in staged encounters.

This resulted in the brightly Juvenile males in the pool male incurring, on average, a significantly higher risk of mortality given an encounter with the predator than with the drabber male in matched pairs. Our results constitute strong behavioral Juvenile males in the pool for a direct viability cost associated with bright coloration in male guppies, and they corroborate the generally accepted paradigm that directional predation by visual fish predators against brightly colored, adult male guppies underlies the evolution of the known divergent color patterns in natural guppy populations that experience different intensities of predation.

The viability cost associated with bright conspicuous coloration in male guppies potentially reinforces for females the reliability of this sexually selected trait as an indicator trait of male quality.

Both Fisherian runaway and viability indicator good genes models of the evolution of elaborate male sexual traits, and female preferences for them, assume that the sexually preferred male trait is costly to produce and maintain Andersson, ; Grafen, ; Johnstone, ; Kotiaho, For any such cost to be evolutionarily significant, however, it must decrease the male's fitness Kotiaho, In theory, the average phenotypic relationship between the Juvenile males in the pool of sexually selected traits and male survival or longevity may either be positive or negative, depending on whether the expression of the sexual trait is condition dependent, that is, on whether males invest differentially in the sexual trait in relation to their ability to bear the associated costs Jennions et al.


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